Primary 5 classes

For any young student, one of the most important parts of learning comes from grasping the basic concepts and understanding how they are being assessed during examination.

Welcome To Science Masterclass Primary Science P5

For any young student, one of the most important parts of learning comes from grasping the basic concepts and understanding how they are being assessed during examination. The fundamental parts of any topic must be grasped before you can move on to the next level and really benefit from that subject. That’s why our professional science tuition centre for primary school students is so useful. Let us help you gain conceptual knowledge on these immediate parts of science, especially if learning may your grasp at present. In particular, science tuition for primary 5 is crucial in determining the child’s grade. Many a times, parents come to our science tuition centre only on the end of primary 5 and we left with nine months to support the child. Since science concepts can be abstract and even primary 3 science knowledge is tested at PSLE science, it is important to start primary 5 science tuition soonest.

As primary science tuition experts, we develop deep understanding of learners and learning science, right at the beginning. Our science tuition for Primary 3 and 4 classes is best way to start mastering science.

We place strong emphasis on the use of assessment for enhancing learning. Assessment is inextricably linked to curriculum, and teaching such that any quality educational process would involve their continuous interactions.

If you find that class time and home learning is not enough at present, then let us step in and offer primary science tuition that solves this issue today.

TopicsBig Ideas
EnergyEnergy and the Sun


–          Plants trap and absorb light energy and convert it to chemical energy during photosynthesis

–          Animals receive chemical energy through feeding

–          The Sun – the main source of energy

Forms of Energy

–          Kinetic

–          Potential

–          Electrical

–          Heat

–          Light

–          Sound

–          Energy Conversions


Forces–          Effects of Forces


–          Different types of Forces

a) Gravitational force

b) Frictional force

c) Magnetic force

d) Elastic spring force




–          Structural / Behavioural adaptations of plants and animals

a) Adapting to physical factors (temperature, light, water)

b) Adaptations for breathing underwater

c) Adaptations of aquatic plants

d) Escaping from Predators

e) Dispersal of fruits and seeds

·      By wind (Wind-like Structure)

·      By water (Fibrous husks)

·      By animals (Hooks or stiff hair)

·      By explosion (Explosive Action)


Mans Impact on the EnvironmentThe Environment


–          Characteristics of an environment

–          Factors affecting environment


Environmental Interactions

–          Food chain

–          Food webs

–          Different types of habitat


Mans impact on the environment

–          Deforestation

–          Soil Erosion

Primary 6 - Topic : Adaptations


  • Adaptations are known as special characteristics or features to help an organism survive or reproduce in its natural habitat.
  • There are two types of adaptations: structural and behavioural.
  • Organisms that cannot adapt to the environment will die or become extinct.
  • Animals adapt to reproduce, to get food, water and air and to protect themselves from predators.
  • Plants adapt to photosynthesize by getting enough sunlight and water.


  • Structural adaptations are special body parts to enable organisms survive or reproduce.

E.g. Lions have sharp teeth to tear meat easily.

Behavioral adaptation

The Nile crocodiles are found resting with its mouth open in its habitat. The Plover bird flies into the open mouth and picks at its teeth.

Structural adaptation

There are special bony flaps in the throat which allow a crocodile to eat when submerged or breathe when its jaws are open underwater.


  • Some organisms behave in a certain ways in order to help them to survive or reproduce.

E.g. Lizards and snakes in the desert learn to stay in the shade of plants and rocks to avoid gaining too much heat from direct sunlight.

Organisms can have both structural and behavioural adaptations. For example, male frigate bird has a red gular pouch, which they display in the breeding season to attract the females.


  • Temperature affects animals and they adapt to survive in extremely hot and cold conditions.
  • Animals cope with extremely cold conditions by:

Adaptation to extreme low temperature

Structural adaptationExamplesBehavioural adaptationExamples
Thick fur and extra layer of fat called blubber.






Polar bear


Hibernation against cold. Slows down heart rate to conserve energyGrizzly Bear



(i)  Thick fur – air, being a poor conductor of heat, slows down heat loss from body to surrounding air (Keeps the bear warm).



(ii)Stiff hairs on feet to help move on ice.


(iii)    Black fur on its back to helps absorb heat from the sun.



Artic Fox


Polar bear







Adaptation to extreme heat

Structural adaptationExamplesBehavioural adaptationExamples
Having big ears to help them to lose more heat



Thick coat reflects sunlight and protects it from the heat radiating from the sand


Small waxy leaves to prevent loss of too much water by evaporation

Fennec Fox











Stay underground during the day and hunt at nightNaked mole rat

Adaptations To Cope With Insufficient Light

  • Animals : Need light to help them to hunt.
  • Plants : Need light to make food.
  • Less light reaches the aquatic plants at the bottom of the pond thus these plants have special features that help them to get light.
 Structural adaptationExamplesBehavioural adaptationExamples
AnimalsBig eyes to help them see in the dark so as to enable them to hunt at night.



OwlNocturnal (Night)


Some animals are active only at night so that they do not have to compete for food with creatures that are active in the day. Many desert animals are also nocturnal because it is cooler at night.

Many desert animals










Plants with weak stem have tendrils / clasping roots/ thorns to help them to obtain sunlight.Tendrils


e.g. cucumber


Clasping roots e.g. money plant


e.g. rose / Bougainvillea

Long, thin stems that spread out to the ground.Carpet grass



Water plants have air spaces in-between their leaves to keep them upright to get more sunlight.Hydrilla



Air spaces in their stalk to keep plant afloat.Water hyacinth has swollen stalk
Large waxy leaves to enable the plants to float and repel the water on the leaves.Water lily




Adaptations for insufficient water

  • Animals : Need sufficient water to carry out life processes.
  • Plants : Need water to make food.
Structural adaptationExamplesBehavioural adaptationExamples
Plants have hairy leaves to slow down loss of water.LantanaDrink a lot of water when there is water source.


Sweat and urinate very little

Thick stem to store water.


Needle-like leaves to reduce water loss.


CactusHave roots that reach very deep to search for underground waterCactus

Adaptations for obtaining air

  • Animals have structural adaptations to help them to obtain air.
  • Aquatic animals have adaptations, such as gills, to take in dissolved oxygen or take in atmospheric oxygen through blowholes such as whale.
 Structural adaptationExamples








Blowholes to help breathe when near water surface.Whale, dolphin
Breathing                    to take in atmospheric oxygen near surface of water.Water scorpion, water stick insect




Carrying air bubbles on their bodies.Water spider


Water beetle

Gills to take in dissolved oxygen.Fish, tadpole, prawn
Special thin and wet skin to help breathe in water.Flat worm, frog, toad



Gill chambers to store water.Crab



Breathing roots that are above ground to help breathe.Mangrove
Aerial roots to take in air and moisture.Orchid

Adaptations for obtaining food

  • Animals are adapted to hunt well. They have structural adaptations, such as camouflage, modified feet and beaks, to aid them in hunting.
Structural adaptationExamplesBehavioural adaptationExamples
Camouflage (spotted, striped, colour) to blend in with the surrounding. Making them less visible to their prey.



Stone fish


Polar bear


Hunt in pairs / groupsLion



Adapted feet, such as sharp claws (talons), to catch prey






Fly very high to see their preyHawk
Have modified beaks that are sharp / see-eating pointed beaks.Eagle





Adaptations For Movement

  • Animals are adapted to move very fast in water, in air and on land.
  • Speed enables them to escape from predators and catch prey.
Structural adaptationExamples
Streamlined bodies to reduce air resistance.Bird
Hollow bones to reduce body mass enable the animals to fly.Bird
Streamlined bodies to cut down on water resistance. Thus, it makes swimming faster.Fish
Modified limbs to enable them to swim faster.Flippers – Penguin, seal


Webbed feet – duck, frog

Oar-like feet – water boatman

Strong tail for propelling them forward in water.Whales, dolphins, seals & Walruses
Have large padded feet to walk on sand in dessert.Camel

Adaptations To Escape From Predators

  • Animals are also adapted to escape from predators.
Structural adaptationExamplesBehavioural adaptationExamples
Special body coverings, such as shells and spines, to protect themselves from being eaten by their predators.







Grazing animals often feed in herds. When a predator approaches, they scatter in different directions, causing the predator to become confused, thus giving the animals time to escape.






Anal scent glands that produce a chemical with a highly offensive smell. When attacked, it sprays the predator with the chemical, which can also cause irritation and even temporary blindness.SkunkWhen threatened, the prey flares up the skin under its mouth to make itself look bigger in order to scare away its predator. To intimidate a predator, the prey spreads its ears out wide to make itself look more massive and imposing.Frill-necked lizard





Imitating other animals which are poisonous.Viceroy butterfly imitates monarch butterfly



Hide in shells/ holesTortoises



Camouflage by blending in with the surrounding to themselves invisible to predators.Spotted deer


Leafy sea dragon

Stick insect

Leaf insect


Adaptations for reproduction

  • Adaptations ensure that animals and plants can reproduce to ensure continuity of their own kinds.
  • Animals adapted to attract mates.
  • Plants adapted to get their flowers pollinated and help them to disperse their seeds.
Structural adaptationExamplesBehavioural adaptationExamples
Bright feathers to attract mates.



PeacockMake loud mating calls.Bullfrog
Females produce light to attract males.



Glow wormVibrates its throat/ waves its wings.Frigate bird
Large, colourful petals and strong scent to attract insects.



Insect-pollinated flowers 
Light, dry pollen grains allow winds to blow away pollens.


Large, feathery stigma to pick up pollen grains.


Fruits with hooks to hook onto animals’ fur.Love grass
Fruits with small and hard seeds that cannot be digested.Guava
Fruits with fibrous husks to enable the fruits to float in water.Coconut


Pong pong

Wing-like structure to allow the fruits to be carried away by wind.Shorea